Snowy Stockholm and Nordic Librarians!

Picture from Twitter
Picture from Twitter @Micha2508

Last week I attended Elsevier’s Nordic Library Connect event in Stockholm, Sweden. I presented the metrics poster / card and slide set that I researched for Elsevier already. It’s a great poster but the entire set of metrics take some digesting. Presenting them all as slides in around 30 minutes was not my best idea, even for an audience of librarians! The poster itself was popular though, as it is useful to keep on the wall somewhere to refer to, to refresh your knowledge of certain metrics:

https://libraryconnect.elsevier.com/sites/default/files/ELS_LC_metrics_poster_V2.0_researcher_2016.pdf

I reflected after my talk that I should probably have chosen a few of the metrics to present, and then added more information and context, such as screen captures of where to find these metrics in the wild. It was a very useful experience, not least because it gave me this idea, but also because I got to meet some lovely folks who work in libraries in the Scandinavian countries.

UPDATE 23 Nov 2016: now you can watch a video of my talk (or one of the others) online.

I met these guys... but also real people!
I met these guys… but also real people!

I particularly valued a presentation from fellow speaker, Oliver Renn of ETH, Zurich. He has obviously built up a fantastic relationship with the departments that his library serves. I thought that the menus he offered were inspired. These are explained in the magazine that he also produces for his departments: see p8 of this 2015 edition.

See tweets from the event by clicking on the hashtag in this tweet:

 

Reflections and a simple round-up of Peer Review Week 2016

It has been Peer Review Week this week: I’ve been watching the hashtag on Twitter with interest (and linked to it in a blogpost for piirus.ac.uk) and on Monday I attended a webinar called “Recognising Review – New and Future Approaches or acknowledging the Peer Review Process”.

I do like webinars, as I’ve blogged before: professional development/horizon scanning from my very own desktop! This week’s one featured talks from Paperhive and Publons, amongst others, both of which have been explored on this blog in the past. I was particularly interested to hear that Publons are interested in recording not only peer review effort, but also editorial contributions. (Right at the end of the week this year, there have been suggestions that editorial work be the focus of next year’s peer review week so it seems to me that we’ve come full circle.) A question from the audience raised the prospect of a new researcher metric based on peer review tracking. I guess that’s an interesting space to watch!

I wondered where Peer Review Week came from: it seems to be a publisher initiative if Twitter is anything to go by: the hashtag is dominated by their contributions. On Twitter at least, it attracted some publisher criticism: if you deliberately look at ways to recognise peer review then some academics are going to ask whether it is right for publishers to profit so hugely from their free work. Some criticisms were painful to read and some were also highly amusing:

There were plenty of link to useful videos, webpages and infographics about how to carry out peer review, both for those new to it and for those already experienced, such as:

(On this topic, I thought that an infographic from Elsevier about reasons why reviewers refused to peer review was intriguing.)

Advice was also offered on how / how not to respond to peer reviews. My favourite:

And there were glimpses of what happens at the publisher or editor level:

There wasn’t much discussion of the issue of open vs blind or double blind peer review, which I found interesting because recognition implies openness, at least to me. And there was some interesting research reported on in the THE earlier this month, about eliminating gender bias through double blind reviews, so openness in the context of peer review is an issue that I feel torn about. Discussion on Twitter seemed to focus mostly on incentives for peer review, and I suppose recognition facilitates that too.

Peer Review Week has also seen one of the juiciest stories in scholarly communication: fake peer reviews! We’ve been able to identify so much dodgy practice in the digital age, from fake papers and fake authors to fake email addresses so that you can be your own peer reviewer and citation rings. Some of this is, on one level, highly amusing: papers by Maggie Simpson, or a co-author who is, in fact your cat. But on another level it is also deeply concerning, and so it’s a space that will continue to fascinate me because it definitely looks like a broken system: how do we stick it all together?

My immigrant’s view of public libraries : please support them!

photo of Bibliothek: mid 20th century architectural style.
My local public library

If you aren’t from the UK then you might not know that many public libraries there are under enormous pressure, and communities are fighting to keep their libraries open. My recent visits to my local public library here in Berlin remind me how important a public library is, even for those who can afford books and have plenty of them at home! Here is my list of why the public library is imporant to me, an immigrant:

  1. I can practice my spoken language skills there. Library staff are patient, friendly, helpful and clear spoken, and that’s an important resource to a new speaker of the language!
  2. I can learn about the culture of my host nation. What the library has on its shelves tells me something about the culture of the place where I live. Books aimed at children are particularly helpful as they are not too difficult to read and they also explain more about the education that the “natives” will have had.
  3. I bump into neighbours there and can strike up a quick chat: this builds my sense of belonging to a community.
  4. There are leaflets in the library about courses and events in my local area, as well as books about the history of the borough and city, and maps and walks. The latter are a collection that shows me what is worth buying for myself!
  5. I can also borrow books that I would never buy, for example when friends visit with their children, I can introduce them to the language and culture of my host nation with children’s books.
  6. There are lots of audio books too, and these are good for me to practice my listening comprehension in the new language.
  7. I can borrow DVDs from the library, and watch them in German. I find the German telly pretty “meh”. It’s either too academic for my language skills, or too dumbed down for me to be interested! I do also borrow from the local DVD shop, but that gets pretty expensive.
  8. Most importantly for me, a library is a haven. It is somewhere welcoming, warm and quiet, where I can take a pause from the hustle of grocery shopping or whatever else I’m doing in the precinct, and be taken out of the everyday world and into an inspiring world of thought, imagination and learning, with absolutely no pressure whatsoever to buy or to spend any money. It’s not about the size of your wallet but the size of your appetite for knowledge and culture!

If that fires your enthusiasm for libraries, then I encourage you to check out your own public library. Use it before you lose it!

 

How to close your blog gracefully.

I wrote this a while ago but it went live at a very busy time so only now am I really getting around to promoting and sharing it. I am very privileged to have featured as a guest blogger on the Thesis Whisperer blog: it’s a blog that I often like to read! Anyway, read on for my collated experience and observations about closing blogs…

The Thesis Whisperer

This post is by Jenny Delasalle, a blogger and freelance blog manager for the Piirus blog, amongst many roles, past and present. Piirus is an online, research collaboration matching service that is provided to the international research community by the University of Warwick, UK, and it aims to support researchers through its blog as well as introducing you to each other. Here, Jenny looks into a theme which she confesses she’s got wrong herself sometimes: some ways to quit blogging!

Screen Shot 2016-02-21 at 11.18.29 amThere are lots of great reasons to blog, but are also sometimes reasons to stop. You might not be getting benefits from your blog any more, or your interests might change. Maybe you’ve ‘inherited’ a blog along with a new job, but blogging isn’t your style. Blogging is potentially an endless commitment, so choosing how and when to stop is difficult and there’s not much advice out…

View original post 918 more words

A useful tool for librarians: metrics knowledge in bite-sized pieces By Jenny Delasalle

Here is a guest blogpost that I wrote for the new, very interesting Bibliomagician blog.

the Bibliomagician

Metrics_poster_verticalHaving worked in UK academic libraries for 15 years before becoming freelance, I saw the rise and rise of citation counting (although as Geoffrey Bilder points out, it should rightly be called reference counting). Such counting, I learnt, was called “bibliometrics”. The very name sounds like something that librarians should be interested in if not expert at, and so I delved into what they were and how they might help me and also the users of academic libraries. It began with the need to select which journals to subscribe to, and it became a filter for readers to select which papers to read. Somewhere along the road, it became a measurement of individual researchers, and a component of university rankings: such metrics were gaining attention.

Then along came altmetrics, offering tantalising glimpses of something more than the numbers: real stories of impact that could be found through online tracking. Context…

View original post 880 more words

Event reporting: An Open Science meet-up in Berlin

Last week I went along to an Open Science meet-up here in Berlin. It was hosted at the Centre for Entrepreneurship at the Technische Universitaet and the theme of the evening was

Academic Papers: collaboration, writing & discovery

There were presentations from two interesting, freshly developed collaboration tools for researchers:
  1. Paperhive –  About having conversations about a paper, such that if you don’t understand something you can ask a question and someone else will answer it.  It doesn’t create copies of papers but allows you to search for them and when you view the paper through their interface, you see the comments. Collaborative reading!
  2. Authorea –  Tool for co-authoring a paper, which apparently works with LATEX and Google docs and other formats besides. “puts emphasis on collaboration and structured, visual editing.” Collaborative writing!
Discussion at the meeting was interesting: it was led by Alex from Paperhive, who evoked the “spirit of open science”, i.e. collaboration and sharing. And we all did share: if you’re interested in such themes then take a look at Twitter conversations with the #openscience hashtag, as of course some folks tweeted at the event!
I chatted to fellow freelancers and to researchers including Franzi, who is involved in a citizen science project at Berlin’s Natural History Museum, and also Sebastian who works for an open access publisher – of great sounding digital books – Language Science Press.
I was left reflecting on how data sharing can be achieved, as opening access to papers is one thing, but opening your data and your whole science is another… being open at the beginning about methodologies can help people to join disparate studies together and share the same methodology to make the results of their research more powerful. But as ever, being open is just the start of the process because you also have to make yourself heard! What channels are there for doing this? And of course, we all of researchers who won’t release data because they want to get another 5 papers out of it themselves. Yet who can blame them in the publish or perish climate? What we measure and incentivise researchers for can have damaging effects, not least the salami slicing of research that would be far more meaningfully written up in a single paper, instead of across 6! How can we make open data itself the output? Well, such themes are big and not for me to worry about, thank goodness. Last week was also the LIBER conference in Helsinki and there the library mangers and repository and publishing folks were very busy discussing data related themes. Once again, Twitter gives a flavour of the kind of things discussed there.

Explaining the g-index: trying to keep it simple

For many years now, I’ve had a good grip on what the h-index is all about: if you would like to follow this blogpost all about the g-index, then please make sure that you already understand the h-index. I’ve recently had a story published with Library Connect, which elaborates on my user-friendly description of the h-index. There are now many similar measures to the h-index, some of which are simple to understand like the i10-index, which is just the number of papers you have published which have had 10 or more citations. Others are more difficult to understand, because they attempt to something more sophisticated, and perhaps they actually do a better job than the h-index alone: it is probably wise to use a few of them in combination, depending on your purpose and your understanding of the metrics. If you enjoy getting to grips with all of these measures then there’s a paper reviewing 108 author-level bibliometric indicators which will be right up your street!

If you don’t enjoy these metrics so much but feel that you should try to understand them better, and you’re struggling, then perhaps this blogpost is for you! I won’t even think about looking at the algorithms behind Google PageRank inspired metrics, but the g-index is one metric that even professionals who are not mathematically minded can understand. For me, understanding the g-index began with the excellent Publish or Perish website and book, but even this left me frowning. Wikipedia’s entry was completely unhelpful to me, I might add.

In preparation for a recent webinar on metrics, I redoubled my efforts to get the g-index into a manageable explanation. On the advice of my co-presenter from the webinar, Andrew Plume, I went back to the original paper which proposed the g-index: Egghe, L., “Theory and practice of the G-index”. Scientometrics, vol. 69, no. 1, (2006), pp. 131–152

Sadly, I could not find an open access version, and even when I read this paper, it is peppered with precisely the sort of formulae that make librarians like me want to run a mile in the opposite direction! However, I found a way to present the g-index at that webinar, which built nicely on my explanation of the h-index. Or so I thought! Follow-up questions from the webinar showed where I had left gaps in my explanation and so this blogpost is my second attempt to explain the g-index in a way that leaves no room for puzzlement.

I’ll begin with my slide from the webinar:

g-index

 

I read out the description at the top of the table, which seems to make sense to me. I explained that I needed the four columns to calculate the g-index, reading off the titles of each column. I explained that in this instance, the g-index would be 6… but I neglected to say that this is because this is the last row on my table where the total number of citations (my right hand column) is higher than or equal to the square of g.

Why did I not say this? Because I was so busy trying to explain that we can forget about the documents that have had no citations… oh dear! (More on those “zero cites” papers later.) In my defence, this is exactly the same as saying that the citations received altogether must be at least g squared, but when presenting something that is meant to be de-mystifying, the more descriptions, the better! So, again: the g-index in my table above is the document number (g) where the total number of citations is greater than or equal to the square of g (also known as g squared).

Also on reflection, for the rows where there were “0 cites” I should also have written “does not count” instead of “93” in the “Total number of citations” column, as people naturally asked afterwards why the g-index of my Professor X was not 9. In my presentation I had tried to explain what would happen if the documents with 0 citations had actually had a citation each, which would have yielded a g-index of 9, but I was not clear enough. I should have had a second slide to show this:

extra g-index

Here we can see that the g-index would be 9 because the 9th row has the total number of citations as higher than g squared, but in the 10th row the total number of citations are less than g squared.

My “0 cites” was something of a complication and a red herring, and yet it is also a crucial concept. Because there are many, many papers out there with 0 citations, and so there will be many researchers with papers that have 0 citations.

I also found, when I went back to that original paper by Egghe, that it has a “Note added in proof” which describes a variant where papers with zero citations, or indeed fictitious papers are included in the calculation, in order to provide a higher g-index score. However I have not used the variant. In the original paper Egghe refers to “T” which is the total number of documents, or as he described it “the total number of ever cited papers”. Documents that have never been cited cannot be part of “T” and that’s why my explanation of the g-index excludes those documents with 0 citations. I believe that Egghe used this as a feature of the h-index which he valued, i.e. representing the most highly cited papers in the single number, which is why I did not use the variant.

However, others have used the variant in their descriptions of the g-index and the way they have calculated it in their papers, especially in more recent papers that I’ve come across, so this confuses our understanding of exactly what the g-index is. Perhaps that’s why the Wikipedia entry talks about an “average” because the inclusion of fictitious papers does seem to me more like calculating an average. No wonder it took me such a long time to feel that I understood this metric satisfactorily!

My advice is: whenever you read about a g-index in future, be sure that you understand what is included in “T“, i.e. which documents qualify to be included in the calculation. There are at least three possibilities:

  1. Documents that have been cited.
  2. Documents that have been published but may or may not have been cited.
  3. Entirely fictitious documents that have never been published and act as a kind of “filler” for rows in our table to help us see which “g squared” is closest to the total number of citations!

I say “at least” because of course these documents are the ones in the data set that you are using, and there will also be variability there: from one data set to another and over time, as data sets get updated. In many ways, this is no different from other bibliometric measures: understanding which documents and citations are counted is crucial to understanding the measure.

Do I think that we should use the variant or not? In Egghe’s Note, he pointed out that it made no difference to the key finding of his paper which explored the works of prestigious authors. I think that in my example, if we want to do Professor X justice for the relatively highly cited article with 50 cites, then we would spread the total of citations out across the documents with zero citations and allow him a g-index of 9. That is also what the g-index was invented to do, to allow more credit for highly cited articles. However, I’m not a fan of counting fictitious documents. So I would prefer that we stick to a g-index where “T” is “all documents that have been published and which exist in the data set, whether or not they have been cited.” So not my possibility no. 1 which is how I actually described the g-index, and not my possibility no. 3 which is how I think Wikipedia is describing it. This is just my opinion, though… and I’m a librarian rather than a bibliometrician, so I can only go back to the literature and keep reading.

One final thought: why do librarians need to understand the g-index anyway? It’s not all that well used, so perhaps it’s not necessary to understand it. And yet, knowledge and understanding of some of the alternatives to the h-index and what they are hoping to reflect will help to ensure that you and the people who you advise, be they researchers or university administrators, will all use the h-index appropriately – i.e. not on its own!

Note: the slides have been corrected since this blogpost was first published. Thanks to the reader who helped me out by spotting my typo for the square of 9!

Quality checks beyond peer review? Retractions, withdrawals, corrections, etc

I often find myself reading/writing things about whether peer review is working or not, the opportunities for post publication peer review and about the changes needed in scholarly communication. An article in the THE earlier this year described a “secret dossier on research fraud” and the concerns it expresses are familiar, although I balk at the word “fraud”.  The THE article/its source claims that:

scientists and journals are extremely reluctant to retract their papers, even in the face of damning evidence

Perhaps the scientists don’t completely understand the processes that publishers use, nor indeed feel able to influence the consequences to their reputations which they must maintain in order to stand a chance of winning the next research grant and remain employed. I used to give workshops to budding researchers on “how to get published”, when I would explain something of the publishing process to them, and my final slide was all about corrections, errata and retractions: what is the difference between them, and why and how do they occur? (Quick answers below!) Even if the reason for retraction should bring no shame, but honour for admitting a mistake, researchers still don’t want to have an article retracted.

Perhaps in the days of print there was even more reason for stringency in avoiding post-publication alterations: after all, the version of record, the print article, would have been impossible to correct and researchers could only be alerted to any retractions or corrections through metadata records and, perhaps if they were avid readers of a journal then they might spot notices in later editions. However, I do wonder if, in the digital world, there is more room for post-publication alterations without shame, in the name of improving science. This is why it is important for researchers and publishers to work together to define the different categories of such alterations and what do they mean for a researcher’s reputation? There is a lack of clarity, which I think stems partially from a variety of practice with different journals, publishers or even database providers in how they describe and handle the various circumstances in which post-publication alterations are needed.

Corrections, corrigenda and errata are used by journals for minor corrections to a published work, eg name of an author was mis-spelled, or a title not properly capitalised, or also for a minor error in an amount mentioned, eg dosage. These are published in later issues in print, added to metadata records in the digital sphere, and also usually visible in the digital full text with a note in brackets after the corrected item. As a librarian, I’m interested in how this sort of information is transferred in metadata records: the U.S. National Library of Medicine website describes how these are usually all referred to as Errata in PubMed, and their page about this goes on to explain and categorise many different types of t

For me, these are a very good reason to ensure that you read the final published version of an article that you intend to cite: the green OA pre-print version of an article is useful for you to understand the work, but not the one I recommend citing.

Retractions are when an article is withdrawn: this is something that you can do as the author, or indeed your institution could do it on your behalf (sometimes also called a withdrawal, see below), or the editor or publisher of a journal can retract an article. Reasons for retraction of an article include a pervasive (but honest) error in the work, or sometimes might be for unethical practice. I can’t recommend the RetractionWatch blog highly enough for examples and stories of retractions. Sometimes you also hear about a partial retraction which might occur when only one figure or part of the conclusions is withdrawn, whilst the rest of the paper is sound.

Withdrawals are when a paper is no longer included in a publication, often when it has accidentally been published twice. I am increasingly hearing of fees being charged to authors for a withdrawal. Publishers usually have policies about what they consider to be grounds for a withdrawal: see Elsevier’s explanation of withdrawals and retractions, for example.

My explanations are a very light-touch introduction to the subject: publishers’ guidance will give you more of an idea about what might happen to your own articles, but I do see a variety of terminology and practice. My advice to academics is to never make assumptions that work which has been corrected or retracted is necessarily suspect, nor that it should affect a researcher’s reputation unless the whole story is known. Just like the reason why we can’t take bibliometric or altmetric scores as the whole picture of an academic’s worth: we always need context. If we all did this, then there would be no reason for authors to resist retraction, but I know that that is an ideal. Hence the story in the THE which I began with…

 

 

How do researchers share articles? Some useful links

This is a topic that interests me: how do researchers choose what to read? Where are the readers on our platforms coming from, when we can’t track a source URL? What are researchers doing in collaboration spaces? (Research processes are changing fast in the Internet era.) Is journal article sharing that is taking place legal and/or ethical? I’m a big fan of Carol Tenopir‘s work investigating readers’ behaviours and I think there’s much to learn in this area. Sharing an article does not equate to it having been read, but it is a very interesting part of the puzzle of understanding scholarly communication.

16649920968_f671108c56_z

Usage is something that altmetrics are displaying (the altmetric.com donut has a section for “Readers” which incorporates information from Mendeley), and it’s just possible that usage would become a score to rival the impact factor, when evaluating journals. It does often seem to me like we’re on a quest for a mythical holy grail, when evaluating journals and criticising the impact factor!

Anyway, what can we know about article sharing? In my last blogpost I highlighted BrightTALK as a way to keep up to date with library themes. The LibraryConnect channel features many useful webinars & presentations (yes, I spoke at one of them), and I recently listened to a webinar on the theme of this blogpost’s title, which went live in December 2015. My notes & related links:

Suzie Allard of the University of Tennessee (colleague of Carol Tenopir) spoke about the “Beyond Downloads” project and their survey’s main takeaways. These include that nearly 74% of authors preferred email as a method of sharing articles. Authors may share articles to aid scientific discovery in general, to promote their own work, or indeed for other reasons, nicely illustrated in an infographic on this theme!

Lorraine Estelle of Project COUNTER spoke about the need for comprehensive and reliable data, and to describe just how difficult it is to gather such data. (I can see that tracking everyone’s emails won’t go down well!) There are obviously disciplinary and demographic differences in the way that articles are shared, and therefore read, and she listed nine ways of sharing articles:

  1. email
  2. internal networks
  3. the cloud
  4. reference managers
  5. learning manager
  6. research social networks
  7. general social networks
  8. blogs
  9. other

Lorraine also introduced some work that COUNTER are doing jointly with CrossREF: DOI tracking and Distributed Usage Logging that are definitely worth further reading and investigation!

Wouter Haak from Elsevier spoke about what you can see about readers of your articles on Mendeley’s dashboard, as an author. He also spoke about a prototype they are developing for libraries, on which institutions could see the countries where collaborations are taking place from within their own institution. More intriguingly (to me), he talked about a working group that he was part of, whereby major scientific publishers are apparently agreeing to support sharing of articles amongst researchers within collaboration groups, on platforms like Mendeley, Academia.edu and ResearchGate, which he describes as “Scholarly Collaboration Networks”. Through such a collaboration, the sharing activity across these platforms could all be tracked and reported on. Perhaps it is easier to lure researchers away from email than to track emails!

 

[Photo credit: Got Credit]

Keeping up with academic library themes

Working mostly from home, I don’t talk to colleagues as often as I used to. Also, being freelance, I don’t have as much opportunity to attend training sessions and conferences as I used to have, but nevertheless, it’s important for me to keep in touch with developments in my discipline and improve my skills, just like Siobhan O’Dwyer described in the case of early career researchers. There are some sources that I particularly value for keeping me informed and up to date, which I wanted to highlight here:

  1. For keeping researchers and their needs in mind, good lunchtime entertainment: Radio 4’s Inside Science and The Life Scientific.
  2. BrightTALK channels: I like to listen to these whilst doing other stuff, and if they’re really good then I tune in and look at the slides too!
  3. Email lists & newsletters: Jiscmail for the UK and the ALA for the US. Daily digests help to keep it manageable to follow these. I also get a regular roundup of news from ResearchInformation.
  4. Blogs: I especially like dipping into the Scholarly Kitchen, RetractionWatch, LSE’s Impact of Social Sciences, Nature blogs and lately, Danny Kingsley of the University of Cambridge. The easiest way to follow such blogs? Twitter feeds!
  5. Twitter: I like to keep an eye on the following hashtags: #ecrchat, #uklibchat, #librarians #altmetrics #OA and recent discovery: #publishinginsights  Actually, I’ve been collecting academic hashtags along with colleagues from piirus.ac.uk, so if you want more then take a look!
  6. A MOOC? I did one MOOC module recently and blogged about it for my regular client, piirus. It was my first MOOC and it’s not an investment of time to be underestimated, but very much worthwhile. If you’re looking for one to suit you, then the platform for the one I did was edX, and you can find lots of courses on their site.

Finally, and this does count as a learning experience (honest!): I go to a local knitting group to pratice & keep up my German. It’s amazing what you can learn from such a group – and not only vocabulary!

What sources do you regularly turn to, or recommend?